Crystallization

Each compound crystallizes differently. Therefore, a product specific design of a crystallization process for a crystalline product is needed. 

Which crystallizer design is best suited depends on the compound to be crystallized, the desired product specifications, the chosen crystallization method and the mode of operation, among others.

There are several crystallization methods, which are defined by the way supersaturation, the driving force for crystallization, is created. As the supersaturation is strongly dependent on the solubility and how the solubility changes with temperature, a major influence on the choice of the crystallization method is the solute solubility in the solvent. 

Benefits of Crystallization

The product quality of a crystallized product is not only determined by purity but also by the size distribution, crystal structure, and particle shape.

In a single process step we separate the solute into a crystal product, generally more than 99.9% pure, leaving behind the solvent and impurities in the remaining liquid.

Control over product quality is achieved by our knowledge and understanding of the crystallization process 

Crystallization methods

Evaporative crystallization

Evaporative crystallization is based on the principle of solvent removal from a solution, resulting in the supersaturation of the solute...

Cooling crystallization

Cooling crystallization is a common method where a solution is gradually cooled, causing the solute to become less soluble which eventually leads...

Antisolvent crystallization

Another way to create supersaturation is to add an antisolvent.

Precipitation

Precipitation involves the formation of crystalline particles through a chemical reaction of which the product is not soluble.

Melt crystallization

Melt crystallization can be used as a solidification technique to shape products in a certain form, as is done in a prilling process.

Mode of operation

Continuous industrial crystallization processes for bulk chemicals such as salt and sugar have already existed for a long time and lead to...

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Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 204)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 242)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 580)
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Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter(NULL, 'large') (Line: 79)
__TwigTemplate_939e74db2413443c5f2a6de5e15ce014->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 378)
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__TwigTemplate_fdeae18cdc0c7a3e237bb7e265f17131->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
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twig_render_template('themes/fruitcake/templates/content/node--standard.html.twig', Array) (Line: 384)
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Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 242)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 580)
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Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter(NULL, 'large') (Line: 79)
__TwigTemplate_939e74db2413443c5f2a6de5e15ce014->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
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Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 378)
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twig_render_template('themes/fruitcake/templates/content/node--standard.html.twig', Array) (Line: 384)
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Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 242)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 580)
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Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
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__TwigTemplate_939e74db2413443c5f2a6de5e15ce014->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
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twig_render_template('themes/fruitcake/templates/content/node--standard.html.twig', Array) (Line: 384)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 433)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 204)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 242)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 580)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 243)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 132)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
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Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
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Debug: Image path is empty. in Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter() (line 494 of modules/contrib/twig_tweak/src/TwigTweakExtension.php).
Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter(NULL, 'large') (Line: 79)
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Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 23)
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Debug: Image path is empty. in Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter() (line 494 of modules/contrib/twig_tweak/src/TwigTweakExtension.php).
Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter(NULL, 'large') (Line: 75)
__TwigTemplate_939e74db2413443c5f2a6de5e15ce014->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
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Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 363)
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twig_render_template('themes/fruitcake/templates/content/node--standard.html.twig', Array) (Line: 384)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 433)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 204)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 242)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 580)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 243)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 132)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
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Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 81)
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 23)
Stack\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 718)
Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)

Debug: Image path is empty. in Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter() (line 494 of modules/contrib/twig_tweak/src/TwigTweakExtension.php).
Drupal\twig_tweak\TwigTweakExtension::imageStyleFilter(NULL, 'large') (Line: 79)
__TwigTemplate_939e74db2413443c5f2a6de5e15ce014->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 378)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 363)
__TwigTemplate_fdeae18cdc0c7a3e237bb7e265f17131->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 378)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 60)
__TwigTemplate_cee9dc3dd9d1fadeeae99e6a91f7d237->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 405)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 378)
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Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 55)
twig_render_template('themes/fruitcake/templates/content/node--standard.html.twig', Array) (Line: 384)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 433)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 204)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array, ) (Line: 242)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 580)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 243)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->prepare(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 132)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
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Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 174)
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 81)
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 23)
Stack\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 718)
Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)